Հաշվետվություն

Ես Հակոբ Դերմենջյաանն են սովորում եմ Մխիթար Սեբաստացի կրթահամալիրի հաշվողական տեխնիկայի 2րդ կուրսում։

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Վարժություններ

Առաջադրանքներ
Հանրահաշվական արտահայտությունների ձևափոխության վերաբերյալ վարժություններ

1.Կատարեք նման անդամների միացում.

3a + 2a = 5a
7b — 4b = 3b
3x + 4x – 5x = 2x
7y – y – 4y + 8y = 10y
3a – 4b – 2a – 3b = a-7b
6×2 – 8x – 5×2 + 3x = x2-5x
2ab – 3a + 3b + 8a – 2b + 3ab = 5ab+5a-5b

 

2.Բացեք փակագծերը և կատարեք նման անդամների միացում.

9a – (4a + 3b) = 5a+3b
8x – (5x -2y) = 8x-5x-2y = 3x-2y
8m + (3n – 7m) = 8m+3n-7m = m+3n
(2a2 – 3a) – (a2 – 4a) = 2a2-3a-a2-4a = a2-7a
7b + ( -3b – 3c) + (b + 4c) = 7b+3b-3c+b+4c = 11b+c

3. Կատարեք բազմապատկում.

3(x + 3) = 3x+9
6(3y – 4) = 18y-24
7 (2m + 3n ) = 14m+21m
c(2a + 3b) = 2ac+3bc
-4a(2b – 2a) = 8ab+8a2
2x (-5x + 4y) = (-10×2 )+ 8xy
(-3) (3a – 2b + 8c) = 9a+6b-18c
x2(x2 +2 x – 1) =x4+2×3-x2

Վարժություններ

1)Նշված եռյակներից որո՞ւմ են թվերը գրված նվազման կարգով:

1) 0,75; 2/3;3/5

2) 3/5;2/3; 0,75

3) 2/3; 0,75; 3/5

4) 2/3;3/5 ; 0,75

2) Քանի՞պարզթիվկա[10; 30] միջակայքում:

  1. 6
  2. 7
  3. 8
  4. 9

3 Նշված թվերից ընտրել այն, որը երկու պարզ թվերի արտադրյալ է:

  • 102
  • 106
  • 135
  • 117
  • 4) Քանի՞ քառակուսի մետր է մեկ հեկտարը:
  • 100
  • 1000
  • 10000
  • 100000
  • 5) Ի՞նչթվանշանով է վերջանում( 16^7-11^5):
  • 1
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6) 36-ը60-ի ո՞ր տոկոսն է:
  • 200/3
  • 70
  • 24
  • 60
  • 7) Գտեք2-իցփոքրհինգհայտարարովբոլորանկանոնկոտորակներիգումարը:
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 8) 60-ը 48 –իցքանի՞տոկոսովէմեծ:
  • 20
  • 25
  • 10
  • 40
  • 9) Գտեք 3/2-1/2(3+2/3 արտհայտության արժեքը:
  • 1/2
  • -1/2
  • 11/3
  • -1
  • 10) 4/7.5: 5/3+1Գտեք արտահայտության արժեքը:
  • 15/14
  • 121/21
  • 1
  • 19/7
  • 11) Գտեք արտահայտության արժեքը:
  • 1/15
  • 2,66
  • 2/15
  • -2/15
  • 12) Գտեք 1/2+1/3:|-1/6|
  • 5
  • 5/9
  • -3/2
  • 2,5
  • 13) Գտեք 3(7/9-2/3)-|-2|արտահայտության արժեքը:
  • 1/2
  • 7/3
  • 9/2
  • -5/3
  • 14) (11/60;5/24) Գտնել միջակայքին պատկանող 5 հայտարարով սովորական կոտորակը:
  • 1/5
  • 5/16
  • 3/5
  • 2/5

Two peas in a pod

CHRIS ROSE

DISCUSSION

They even dressed us the same. My mother said that it was easier for her just to buy two of everything. Sometimes it was the same clothes but in different colours – a red top for me and a yellow one for my sister, for example. When they did that, we swapped the clothes so that they still couldn’t tell us apart. Not even our parents could tell us apart. Our schoolteachers never could.

And then there were our names.

It was crazy – they called us Edie and Evie! Even our names were almost identical.

Two peas in a pod, they called us. Two drops of water.

Sometimes we could hardly tell ourselves from each other. At least, when we were small. But as we grew up things began to change.

Everybody thinks identical twins are, well, identical. But if you’re a twin, you’ll know that it’s not true. Physically, yes, we were almost identical. I say almost, because there was the birthmark. My sister has a very small brown spot on her left shoulder. I don’t. This was the only way we could ever be told apart.

But other than

that, twins, even identical ones, are different inside. I think we started to change when we started school. I was always very good. I never got into trouble, I always did all of my homework and did very well in all the tests and exams. Evie wasn’t like that. Evie was always getting into trouble. Evie never did her homework. Evie was a really bad student, who never studied and never learned anything. She would have failed her exams – but of course she didn’t. Why? Well, it’s simple, isn’t it?

If you have an identical twin, how do you know which is which?

Evie, of course, started by copying my homework. Then she got worse. When there was a class test, she would write my name on her paper. When she got into trouble, she smiled beautifully at the teacher and said, ‘No, I’m Edie, I’m the good one. It was my twin sister Evie who was naughty!’

They never took us seriously. We were only small children after all; there was no harm in being a bit naughty. Everyone used to laugh. And because they never really knew who was who, neither of us was ever punished for being naughty, and they never failed either of us in our exams, because they couldn’t be sure which one to fail and which one to pass.

But

as we got older, it got worse. Evie started to steal things. At first it was only things from other children – sweets or pens or pencils or rubbers, the kinds of things that sometimes happen in school. But when we were 15, some money was taken from a teacher’s bag. It was quite a lot of money, and the situation was serious. Then they found the money in Evie’s pocket. And what did Evie do? Well, of course, she did the same thing she always did. ‘No, it wasn’t me. It was my twin sister.’ And I got into trouble, serious trouble this time. They called the police. They tried to expel me from school. It was only when our parents came in and pleaded with the headteacher that they agreed to drop the charges and say nothing about it. We were lucky that time.

But the trouble didn’t stop there. Evie

was always playing truant, not going to school. Then when she came in again, she accused me of lying. She said that she was Edie, and that I had given the teachers the wrong name when they called the register. I thought about telling everyone about the birthmark on her shoulder, that they should check the birthmark to make sure who was who. That would solve the problem. I don’t know why I didn’t. Identical twins are always very close, and even though I knew she was bad, I didn’t want to get her into trouble. Perhaps also because I knew that trouble for her also meant trouble for me.

After we left school I began to worry more. I got a job working in an office. It wasn’t an interesting job, but it was OK. I worked hard in the office, I did well and was going to get a promotion. Evie, on the other hand, did nothing. She never got a job. She used to come and ask me for money. She often disappeared for long periods of time. I didn’t know where she was. This was bad, but it was worse when one day I looked at my passport and found that I had Evie’s. I didn’t know where she was, but obviously she had taken my passport to get there. Wherever she was, and whatever she was doing, she was pretending to be me.

 

Eventually it happened. There was a loud knock on the door at six o’clock in the morning. There were three policemen there. Two of them in uniforms, the other one a detective. I looked at their serious faces and thought that they had come to tell me bad news. I thought they were coming to tell me that my sister had died. But it wasn’t that. They asked me to come to the police station with them. I understood that I couldn’t say no. They said that they didn’t want to arrest me just yet, but that if I refused to help them, they would arrest me.

Of course, they asked to see my documents. I had to show them Evie’s passport, and tried to explain that I wasn’t really Evie, but that my sister had taken my passport.

When I got to the police station, Evie was there too. They had already arrested her – well, I say ‘her’, but of course, they had arrested me. As far as the police were concerned, they had arrested ‘Edie’. That’s what it said on her passport, and that’s who she said she was.

There was a long list of charges against her. Fraud and smuggling drugs. She told the

police that she was really Edie, and that I had changed the passports. Edie, me, who had a perfect alibi. Edie hadn’t been to any other countries. She went to work every day. It was Evie who was the problem, she said.

The trial lasted for days, with even the judge and the lawyers getting continually confused about who was who. Eventually, they convicted her. Ten years.

I still go to my job every day. I’m still free. I never go to visit my sister in prison. I’m afraid that she might show someone that she doesn’t have a birthmark on her left shoulder. Then someone might look, and they will find that I do.

 

The story of Coca-Cola

What is the most recognizable object in the world? Could it be a football? Or a Big-Mac? No, the answer is a Coca-Cola bottle. The famous Coca-Cola bottle is almost 100 years old !

Coca-cola sign in Las VegasCoca-cola advertisement in Las Vegas

Footballs and big macs are certainly part of life for lots of people; but Coca-Cola is now a permanent part of world culture. People know and drink Coca-Cola all over the world.
It is said that the Coca-Cola bottle is the most recognised object in the world. Hundreds of millions of people can recognise a Coke bottle by its shape, even if they cannot see it! And the famous Coca-Cola logo is the most famous logo in the world. Unlike any other famous commercial logo, it has not changed in 100 years!
But the story of Coca-Cola is even older than that. It was in 1886 that John Pemberton, a druggist in Atlanta, Georgia, invented a new type of syrup, using coca leaves, sugar and cola nuts, plus a few other secret ingredients! Pemberton sold it as a medicine; and with its coca (the source of cocaine), it must have made people feel good!
Nevertheless, Pemberton’s medicine was not very successful, so he sold his secret formula to another druggist, Asa Candler. Candler was interested, because he had another idea; he thought that Pemberton’s «medicine» would be much better if it was mixed with soda.
Candler was thus the man who really invented the drink Coca-Cola. At first he sold it in his drugstore; then he began selling the syrup to other drugstores, who used it with their soda fountains. Candler also advertised his new drink, and soon people were going to drugstores just to get a drink of Coca-cola.
Before long, other people became interested in the product, including a couple of businessmen who wanted to sell it in bottles. Candler sold them a licence to bottle the drink, and very quickly the men became millionnaires. The famous bottle, with its very distinctive shape, was designed in 1916.
During the First World War, American soldiers in Europe began asking for Coca-Cola, so the Coca-cola company began to export to Europe. It was so popular with soldiers, that they then had to start bottling the drink in Europe.
Today, Coca-Cola is made in countries all over the world, including Russia and China; it is the world’s most popular drink.
As for the famous formula, it is probably the world’s most valuable secret! The exact ingredients for making Coca-Cola are only known to a handful of people. And as for the «coca» that was in the original drink, that was eliminated in 1903. It was a drug, and too dangerous. Today’s Coca-Cola contains caffeine, but n in 1903. It was a drug, and too dangerous. Today’s Coca-Cola contains caffeine, but not cocaine!

Exercises

1.I am a student. 2. You are a teacher. 3. Mr. A is a man. 4. Marie is a girl. 5. The man  is in the train. 6. We are students. 7. I am Mr. C. 8. What are yoy? 9. Who is he? 10. How are you? 11. What is Henri? 12. What am i? 13. Who are you? 14. Whi am i? 15. Am i a student? 16. Is he a student? 17. Is she a woman? 18. Are they wainters? 19. Are you all boys? 20. Am i the teacher? 21. Are you Mr. C.? 22. Are you Mrs. H.? 23. Is he Mr. K.? 24. There is one mountain in the picture. 25. Are there two mountains in the picture? 26. There are three pencils on the table. 27. There is an egg in the egg-cul. 28. There are fifteen students in the class. 29. Is there one mountain in the picture? 30. Yes. That is right, there is only one.

The story of Blue Jeans

In 1996, someone found some very old clothes in an old mine in Nevada, USA; they included a pair of dirty old jeans. Today, those jeans are very valuable, and they are now in the Levi Strauss Archival Collection, in San Francisco. The jeans, which are over 140 years old, are the oldest pair of Levi’s 501 jeans in the world.
They are almost the same as a modern pair of 501’s; there are just some small differences in the detail. For instance, today’s 501’s have two back pockets, the old pair just has one.

THE STORY OF JEANS

jeans

Jeans were the classic clothes of the American West.
In 1853, a young tailor from Germany, called Levi Strauss, began working in San Francisco; Levi sold thick ՀԱՍՏ canvas to miners; the miners used the canvas to make tentsՎՐԱՆԵ.
One day, a minerՀԱՆՔԱՓՈՐ told Levi that he could not find trousers that were strong enough for work in the gold mines. Levi decided to make some trousers out of canvas.
Very soon, he had sold all the canvasՔԱԹԱՆ trousersՏԱԲԱՏ he had made! They were just what miners wanted.
However, the canvas was ratherԲԱՎԱԿԱՆԻՆ heavy and stiffԿՈՇՏ. Levi thereforeԱՅԴ ՊԱՏՃԱՌՈՎ began to look for a different textile; soon he found a heavy textile from France; it was called serge de Nimes. Americans just called this de Nimes, and this name soon got reducedԿՐՃԱՏՎԵԼ to denim.
Denim was a bit lighter than canvas, but it was very strong; it was ideal for miners.
However, original denim was almost white, and miners did not like the color! Their denim trousers got dirty as soon as they began working!
Levi Strauss therefore decided to use colored denim, and he chose dark blue. In 1873,he began to make denim trousers with metal rivets to make them stronger. This was a radical new idea: «Blue jeans» had arrived!
Levi’s jeans were so popular, that his company got bigger and bigger; soon, other firms were making blue jeans too. Miners liked them, but so did cowboys and other working men. Blue jeans became classic American working trousers.
After the Second World War, jeans became popular all over the world. Today, blue jeans are made over the world – most of them in Asia. Very few jeans are now made in the USA, because of the costԱՐԺԵՔ: but it is still possible to buy blue jeans that are made in San Francisco…. if you have a lot of money to spend.
Today there are hundreds of different brands of jeans. Many top fashion brands, like Armani or Benetton, make their own blue jeans. But for real authentic jeans, «Levi’s» are still the most popular brand.

JEANS FOR EVERYONE ?

In America, everyone wears jeans as leisureԱԶԱՏ  wear. Some people wear jeans all the time, even for work. But Americans are perhaps less formal than other nations.
At the «G7» summit in Denver, in 1997, American President Bill Clinton gave all his visitors jeans, for a «Western evening». Tony Blair, the British Prime Minister, put them on, but other European leaders, including Chancellor Kohl of Germany and Jacques Chirac, the President of France, refusedՄԵՐԺԵԼ. Some people still think that jeans are not respectable clothes!
Not the young! Jeans are now the international uniform worn by young people. Why? That is a good question!

The first jeans were made over 160 _______ _______ by a young _________ called
Levi Strauss. At first, Levi sold _________ to miners; the miners used this to make _______ .
Then Levi began making ___________, because miners needed __________ that were very
______. However, the _________ was really too _______ , so Levi looked for a textile which
was _________. He found a textile _________ “serge de Nimes”; it was just what he wanted
– except that miners ____ _____ _______ the colour. So Levi coloured the “denim” blue, and
made the world’s first ______ _______. He also made his fortune, because jeans were ____
popular; everyone wanted to ______ them.
Today, jeans are popular ____ ______ the world. They are the _______ popular type of
________ ____ the world.